Biology, Evolution,& Variation - Mind Map

Biology, Evolution,& Variation Mind Map
 
 
 
 

Biology, Evolution,& Variation - Mind Map

27 days ago by: kiernan cinque
 
 
study guide one
  • Biology, Evolution,& Variation
    • MODULE 1
      • Anthropology is the study of humankind in both the past and present. There are 4 main subfields; cultural, archaeology, linguistic, & physical. Each division helps us to better understand human variation. Evolution is a large part of anthropology and has been studied since the beginning of time by men such as Darwin and Lamarck.
        • Human Taxonomy Categories:
        • What is Evolution? Evolution= change in allele frequencies in a population over time
        • Human Variation is Influenced By: 1. inherited genes 2. environmental circumstances (including learned and shared culture and behaviors)
        • FUN FACT: the word anthropology comes from Greek roots "anthropos" = humanity and "logos"= word
    • MODULE 2
      • Evolution is a genetic process that occurs overtime and its impacted by things such as mutation, natural selection, and gene flow. Gene flow has a large part in how populations come to be. Human genetics can be explained by our allele frequencies, genotypes, and phenotypes.
        • Difference Between Genotype & Phentoype: Genotype- genetic makeup of an individual. Phenotype-observable/detectable, physical characteristics of an organism.
        • DNA structure: includes four different types of nitrogen bases with only one type of sugar and one type of phosphate group
          • Idea
        • Polygenic Inheritance: genotype+environment= phenotype
        • FUN FACT: As shown in lab, the color, size, and general appearance of animals living in nature affects their rate of survival.
    • MODULE 3
      • Evolution takes place in all environments at all times. Evolution is measured by the change that occurs in allele frequencies, overtime. Modern human variation has been created through evolution and therefore has helped us to observe the difference between individuals.
        • How Is Evolution Measured? By determining changes in allele frequencies across generations.
        • Hardy-Weinberg Principle: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 which is used to calculate the genetic variation of a population at equilibrium
          • Genetic Variation is inherited from our parents.
            • Idea
        • FUN FACT: evolution is not random nor linear
    • MODULE 4
      • Modern human variation has come a long way from the first living organisms. The concept of race is a large part of human society and is proven to be culturally constructed by people. The grouping of races has created many justice and equality concerned conflicts.
        • Humans with the darkest skin color are nearest to the equator (highest UV radiation) and the lightest skin colors are near the North & South poles (lowest UV radiation)
          • Idea
        • FUN FACT: From the first descendants of Africa and Europe, their descendants still share around 79% of DNA
        • Race is not considered to be biologically valid (no discrete groups) and differs depending on place, time, subgroups...
          • Idea
        • Science is the acquisition of knowledge through experimental methods. The application of this knowledge is a sociopolitical process.
    • MODULE 5
      • There are numerous types of species living in all kinds of environments. Species include 3 main concepts which are biological, environmental, and morphological. Species form through two basic modes:phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium (slowly or rapidly). Scientists use osteology to study the skeletons and structures of species living or dead.
        • Skeletons have maintained variation throughout history. This variation can be impacted by thing suchs as talus, sexual, age, and idiosyncratic variation.
        • What is a Species? Organisms sharing a common ancestry, adaptive repertoire, & variable overlapping phenotypes.
        • What is RIM? Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms are factors that prevent mating between a male and female of two different species. Some examples would include habitat isolation, temporal isolation, or incompatible reproductive organs.
        • FUN FACT: The term Synapomorphies means shared derived-traits (pertaining to species/living things)
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