Fundamentals of Pharmacology - Mind Map

Fundamentals of Pharmacology Mind Map
 
 
 
 

Fundamentals of Pharmacology - Mind Map

3 years ago by: Adrienne Ramey
 
 
  • Fundamentals of Pharmacology
    • Chemistry
      • Human physiology=chemistry Drugs are chemicals that can alter chemistry either negatively or positively.
        • Genetic code determines responses to the chemicals that are taken.
    • Basic Principles of Pharmacology
      • Pharmacology is the study of beneficial effects of chemicals on the living tissue. When chemicals are used in clinical practice they are referred to as "drugs".
        • Medical definition of drugs- a chemical that affects the living process. Legal definition- a chemical regulated by the FDA allows the use to diagnose, prevent, or treat diseases.
      • Pharmacotherapeutics
        • Pharmacokinetics-what the body does to the drug
          • Absorption
            • 1st phase of pharmacokinetics- process by which the drug is transferred from its site of administration to the systemic circulation. Speed of absorption depends on the routes of administration.
          • Distribution
            • 2nd phase- drug enters circulation and is distributed throughout the body.
              • Factors affecting distribution: tissue permeability, blood flow, binding to plasma proteins, and binding to sub-cellular components.
          • Metabolism
            • 3rd phase- biotransformation: changes that the body does to the drug to inactivate it so that it can be eliminated by the 4th process of pharmacokinetics.
              • 4 methods by which the body biotransforms: oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation
          • Elimination
            • 4th phase- elimination is fluids occurs through urine, breast milk, saliva, tears, and sweat.
              • Sites: renal, lungs, and GI-fecal
        • Pharmacodynamics- what the drug does to the body
          • Systemic Effect
          • Cellular Effects
    • Drug Nomenclature
      • Chemical Name
      • Generic Name
      • Trade Name
    • Drug "Discoveries"/Development
      • Drugs are not often "discovered". Drugs are invented for a purpose. Ether, on the other hand, was discovered by serendipity when a lab worker opened a bottle of it and passed out.
      • Drug Development
        • The process of drug development starts with preclinical work (animal studies) which can take from 2-6 years.
          • The pharmaceutical company then does human clinical studies: Phase 1 (<1 year), Phase 2 (last 1-2 years), and Phase 3 (3-6 years)
            • If the drug successfully passes all three of the previous mentioned phases the company applies for the drug to be approved by the FDA
              • If approved, the drug can be released and distributed, BUT will continue through Phase 4 (Post-marketing Surveillance) which never really ends.
                • Post-marketing Surveillance: all methods used to continue monitoring drug safety and effectiveness after approval for public use. Healthcare providers provide the adverse effects and additional research info.
        • Several FDA Provisions towards expedited review of drugs for life-threatening illnesses: in case of substantial observed benefits or no other drug currently available.
          • Examples: Fast Track Review (Zika Virus), Priority Review, and Accelerated Approval.
        • Orphan Drugs: drugs designed for rare diseases
          • Easier regulatory approval than standard drugs.
          • Other financial incentives including longer exclusivity periods
      • Off-Label Prescribing
        • Prescriptions of drugs for a purpose other than what it is approved for (Gabapentin- Neurontin for neuropathy)
    • Controlled Substances
      • Controlled substances are drugs that are classified based on their potential for abuse.
        • Classifications I-V
          • Schedule I- Highest potential for abuse. Typically not appropriate for medical tx in US. (Heroin, LSD,...)
          • Schedule II- High potential for abuse & addiction. Specific therapeutic purposes allowed. (Opiods)
          • Schedule III- Lower abuse potential than Is & IIs, but still significant physical dependence risks. (Codeine, anabolic steroids, amphetamines...)
          • Schedule IV- Lower potential for abuse than III. Limited physical or psychological dependence.(Anti-anxiety drugs, barbiturates)
          • Schedule V- Lowest abuse potential. Low dose opiods.(cough preparation, antidiarrheal meds)
    • Drug Classification
      • There is NO universal system
      • Classification can be based on: Body System, Pharmacotherapeutics Actions on Specific Dz Process, Pharmacologic Action, Molecular Action
    • Basic Concepts in Drug Therapy
      • Target
        • Anything within a living organism that a drug can bind to, to cause a change in its behavior or function. Common biological targets are proteins and nucleic acids.
      • Dose
        • Dose-Response Curve
          • This is the relationship between dose of a drug and specific response of one individual OR a group of homogeneous individuals
          • Ceiling Effect- no further action
            • LD50- drugs half life
              • Threshold Dose- minimum dose to have effect
        • Median-Effective Dose Curve
          • Large enough quantity to achieve concentration to exert desired effect BUT not too large to be toxic.
          • Median Effective Dose (ED50)- dose concentration of which at least 50% of people in that population respond effectively.
          • Median Toxic Dose (TD50)- dose concentration of which at least 50% of people in that population respond toxically to that drug.
          • Therapeutic index is the most efficient way to screen a drug for safety. Therapeutic index is the ratio of the TD50 and the ED50. The wider the therapeutic index the safer the drug. The more narrow the therapeutic index the more toxic the drug is.
      • Potency & Max Efficacy
        • Potency is the dose that produces a given response in a specific amplitude. Drug that can produce desired results with lower dose is more potent.
        • Max Efficacy is the point where no further response to the drug despite dose AKA the ceiling effect.
    • Half-Life & Steady State
      • Half-Life (t1/2): Time required for 50% of the drug remaining in the body to be eliminated. Quantification of the elimination is by half-life. For regularly taken medications, there is a process of drug absorption vs. removal.
      • Steady State: the point at which the amount of drug being taken in, is the same amount of drug being taken out. Average steady state is 5-6 lives for a medication to reach steady state.
    • Citation
      • Ciccone CD. Pharmacology in Rehabilitation. 5th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 2016.
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