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- Construct Chords Logically
- Guideline 5 Write complete chords. If you must write an incomplete chord for smooth voice leading requirements of dissonance treatment, you may omit the 5th; all chords must contain a root and 3rd.
- Guideline 6 Double the root. You may double the 5th (and 3rd as a last resort) if it makes the voice-leading smoother.
- Tips for Avoiding Problems
- Guideline 7 Write outer voices first.
- Guideline 8 Move upper voices in contrary motion, and if possible, by step to bass.
- Guideline 9 Begin part-writing exercises with a complete chord in close position, and try to maintain close position as much as possible
- If any pair of upper voices leaps simultaneously by more than a 3rd, try revoicing a chord to smooth it out.
- Maintain the Independence and Musical Territory for Each Voice
- Guideline 3 Avoid voice crossing and overlapping. a voice overlap occurs when a part leaps above/below a higher/lower part's previous pitch. A voice crossing is when a part is above/below a part;s current pitch, swapping places with the adjacent part.
- Rule 3 Tendency tones cannot be doubled, They are usually marked and often require special treatment
- Guideline 4 Avoid direct octaves and 5ths between the soprano and bass (unless soprano moves by step, especially in perfect authentic cadences).
- Rule 4 Keep adjacent upper voices (S-A and A-T) within an octave of each other.
- move the voice as little as possible when changing chords
- Guideline 1 retain common tones, and move upper voices mostly by step.
- Rule 1 Resolve tendency tones (7th degree, chordal dissonances, or chromatically altered tones) by step.
- Guideline 2 Avoid melodic leaps involving dissonant intervals.
- Rule 2 A pair of voices cannot move from one unison, octave, or P5 to another interval the same size in parallel or contrary motion
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