Non-Human Primates(1) - Mind Map

Non-Human Primates(1) Mind Map
 
 
 
 

Non-Human Primates(1) - Mind Map

28 days ago by: Jacob Powell
 
 
  • Non-Human Primates
    • Primate Behavior
      • Social Strategies: Used To Maximize Fitness
        • Residential Patterns
          • One Male, Multifemale
            • Most Common Residential Pattern For Primates
            • Distinct Sexual Dimorphism In Group
            • Males Leave Group At A Young Age to Form Own Group
            • Infanticide Is Common
          • One Female, Multimale
            • Males Help With Parenting
            • Often Small Primates
            • Most Rare Type Of Social Group
          • Multifemale, Multimale
            • Low Competition Between Males
            • Protection From Predators Due To Being In A Large Group
            • Degree Of Order In Group
          • All Male
            • Usually Temporary
            • Consist Of Males Who Are Not Able To Obtain Females
          • One Male, One Female
            • Male Knows Offspring
            • Less Sexual Dimorphism
            • Known As More Of A Female Reproductive Strategy
          • Solitary
            • Male's Range Encompasses Several Females
        • Goal Of Males Is To Maximize Offspring and Goal Of Females Is To Maximize Resources
          • Influencing Factors Also Include Food Distribution As Well As Predation
      • Most Primates Are Highly Social
      • Social Strategies Differ Between Competition and Cooperation
        • Males Compete For Mates Which Leads To Fighting And Intimidation
        • Females Compete For Resources To Ensure Survival Of Offspring
        • Subordination: Ritualized Behaviors To Ease Tension And Reduce Conflicts
        • Cooperation Promotes Group Cohesion And Helps Form Bonds
          • Playing
            • Primates Playing With One Another
          • Alloparenting
          • Group Hunting
          • Warfare
        • Giving Waring Calls Of Incoming Predators
    • Primate Locomotion
      • Modes Of Locomotion For Primates
        • Vertical Clinging and Leaping
          • Most Common In Strepsirrhines
            • Leaping
          • Primates With This Ability Use Their Long Hands, Flexible Back, and Long Hind Limbs
        • Arboreal Quadrupedalism
          • Common In Both Old and New World Monkeys
            • Arboreal Quadruped
          • Movement Through Trees With All Four Limbs
          • Feet Grabs Trees and Tail Is Used For Balance
        • Terrestrial Quadrupedalism
          • Common In Some Old World Monkeys and Great Apes
            • Knuckle Walking
          • Knuckle Walking is a Form of This
          • Long Limbs For Walking On the Ground
        • Suspensory Brachiation
          • Movement Through Trees Using Hand Over Hand Motion
            • Brachiation
          • Used By Spider Monkeys, Gibbons, and Orangutans
          • Posture Is Upright
        • Bipedalism
          • Upright Walking
            • Bipedialism
          • Some Primates Are Occasionally Bipeds But Humans Are the Only True Ones
          • Large Joints To Support Body Weight
          • Large Surface Areas In Knees
          • S-Shaped Back Allows For Humans To Stand Upright
    • Primate Taxonomy
      • Sub Orders: Strepsirrhines and Haplorrhines
        • Characteristics of Strepsirrhines
          • Often Nocturnal
          • No Post Orbital Bar Closure
          • Rely on Olfaction/Wet Nose
          • Grooming Claw on 2nd Toe
          • Tooth Comb
          • Lemur
              • Examples of Strepsirrhines: Lemurs, Lorises, Aye-Ayes
        • Characteristics of Haplorrhines
          • Forward Facing Eyes
          • Dry Noses
          • Diurnal
          • Reliance on Vision
          • Large Brains
          • Orangutan
            • Parvorders of the Anthropoidea (non-Tarsier Haplorrhines): Platyrhines and Catarrhines
              • Platyrhines (New World Monkeys): Contain Species Such As the Howler Monkey, Owl Monkey, Sprider Monkey, Capuchin Monkey, Squirrel Monkey, and Tamarins
                • Most Have Dental Formula of 2:1:3:3
                • Arboreal Quadrapeds
                • Eat Leaves, Fruits and Insects
                • Howler Monkey, Spider Monkey and Wooly Monkey All Have Prehensile Tails
              • Catarrhines Contain Old World Monkeys and Hominoids
                • Hominoids Species Such As Gibbons, Siamangs In the Hylobatid Family and Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Humans in the Hominid Family
                  • Bilophidant Teeth
                  • Diverse Habitats
                  • No Prehensile Tsils
                  • High Sexual Dimorphism
                • Old World Monkeys: Contain Species Such As Langurs, Colobus Monkeys, Baboons, Macaques, and Vervet Monkeys
                  • No External Tail
                  • Large Brains For Body Size
                  • More Terrestial Than Monkeys
                  • Y-5 Molars
      • Tarsiers: Share Characteristics With Both Strepsirrhines and Haplorrhines (Considered a Haplorhine Despite Being Nocturnal and Having A Grooming Claw)
        • Tarsier
    • Primate Evolution and Fossils
      • Origin of Platyrrhines Hypotheses
        • Migrated From North America
        • Migrated From Africa To South America
        • Migration From Africa To South Africa Through Antarctica
        • No Migration At All
      • History Of Primates
        • Plesiadapiforms (65-55 MYA) Formed Which Were Not Primates But Shared Some Characteristics
        • Euprimates Were The First True Primates Ande Were Found In Africa, Asia, W USA, and Europe
          • Adapids (Possible Lemur Ancestors)
            • Flat Incisors
            • Diurnal
          • Omomyids (Possible Tarsier Ancestor)
            • Large Incisors
            • Nocturnal
          • Both Adapids and Omomyids Shared a Postorbital Bar, Convergent Eyes Orbits, Long Digits, and Grasping Ability
        • Basal Anthropoid
          • Eosimias
            • Found In East Asia
            • Monkey-Like Jaw and Canine
          • Biretia
            • Small Sized Primate
        • Oligopithecids, Parapithecids, and Propliopithecids Were Three Types Of Primates Found In Egypt (37-29 MYA)
        • Planet Of The Apes (28-12 MYA)
          • Proconsulids: Early Apes With y-5 Molar Pattern and No Tail
          • Dryopithecus: Chimpanzee Sized Frugivore Found In Europe
            • Large Canines
            • Sharp Teeth
            • Large Brain
        • Apes Outside Of Africa
          • Ouranopithecus
            • Found In Modern Greece
            • Resembles Modern Gorilla
          • Sivapithecus
            • Found In South Asia
            • Similar Skull To Orangutans
          • Khoratpithecus
            • Likely Ancestor of Orangutans
          • Gigantopithecus
            • Large Primate Ever
      • Hypotheses of Why Primates Emerged
        • Moved To Trees To Prey On Insect
        • Angiosperm Radiation Increased Fruit Availability
        • Primates Evolved To Exploit Trees
      • Fossil: Remains Of Organisms Transformed Into Rock
        • Bone and Teeth Are 99%of the Fossil Record
        • Fossilization Only Occurs Under Ideal Circumstances
          • Covered Soon After Death
          • Protected From Scavengers
        • Fossils Are Formed Mainly in Sedimentary Rock
        • Ways To Date Fossils
          • Lower Stratum is Older
          • Amount of Fluorine Absorbed Correlated With How Old It Is
          • Radiometric Dating In the Form Of Half Lifes
          • Amount Of Tracks In Rock Crystals
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