PVGS Knowledge Transfer & Retention (KT&R) - Mind Map

PVGS Knowledge Transfer & Retention (KT&R) Mind Map
 
 
 
 

PVGS Knowledge Transfer & Retention (KT&R) - Mind Map

22 days ago by: Dan Blaylock
 
 
  • PVGS Knowledge Transfer & Retention (KT&R)
    • Project definition
      • Description: This project establishes the methods to capture, document, transfer, and retain the expert and unique knowledge of an aging and mobile workforce to reduce organizational vulnerability to sudden knowledge loss.
      • Deliverables: Knowledge Acquisition, Transfer and Retention Methods.
    • Constraints
      • Budget
        • People
          • Palo Verde People Health Committee (PPHC)
          • Director, Palo Verde Human Resources
          • Human Resources Business Partners
          • Palo Verde Leaders
          • Palo Verde Employees
        • Materials
        • Services
      • Deadlines: An individual who decides to leave the company within 60 days or less should work with their leader and Human Resource Business Partner and complete an "Leader Checklist for Exiting Employees."
      • Deadlines: Annually and concurrent with individual performance management and workforce planning activities, leaders should identify individuals or positions where potential knowledge loss would have significant business impact.
      • Reasons employees may not be willing to share knowledge: • View their knowledge as intellectual property. • Fear lay-off or loss of status. • Alienation against the company. • Believe they do not have any valuable knowledge. • View it as part of their job
    • Planning
      • Definitions:
        • Explicit Knowledge - Information contained within written documents or electronic media.
        • Knowledge Acquisition - The process used to capture and document the important indirect knowledge or "know-why" of experienced personnel. Once documented in a useful format, indirect knowledge becomes direct knowledge.
        • Knowledge Retention - The process by which an organization ensures that critical knowledge is preserved, thereby mitigating the risk of loss.
        • Knowledge Transfer - The process used for distributing important indirect knowledge within the workforce from experienced workers to less experienced personnel.
        • Tacit Knowledge - Knowledge that is undocumented and unique that resides within an individual’s brain.
      • Create a schedule: Identification and assessment of critical, unique knowledge or skills of individuals leaving the company on short notice (60 days or less).
      • Identifying and managing projected personnel losses using workforce planning data and industry trends.
      • Identifying individuals or positions where potential knowledge loss risk is greatest or most imminent.
      • Assessing the risk associated with losing critical or unique knowledge of individuals.
      • Choosing techniques to transfer and retain unique and critical knowledge.
    • Determine Unique Knowledge Factor
      • Palo Verde Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment is designed to identify and prioritize critical skills required to safely operate plant or company systems and to capture and retain critical undocumented knowledge that could be lost.
      • An estimate of any unique knowledge employees may possess. The uniqueness of the knowledge will be categorized by using the following factors: 1. Knowledge is documented and exists in the department with more than one individual. 2. Knowledge exists within the department and within Palo Verde. 3. Knowledge exists within the department, but not within Palo Verde or APS, but is available in the industry. 4. Knowledge does not exist in the department, not within Palo Verde or APS, but is available in the industry. 5. Knowledge that does not exist anywhere else within Palo Verde or APS or the industry.
    • Determine Critical Knowledge Factor
      • An estimate of the difficulty or level of effort required to replace the critical knowledge. Managers are responsible for making these ratings based upon the following criteria: 1. Common knowledge and skills. External hires possessing the knowledge/skill are readily available and require little additional training. 2. Proceduralized or non-mission critical knowledge and skills. Clear, up-to-date procedures exist. Training programs are current and effective and can be completed in less than one year. 3. Important, systematized knowledge and skills. Documentation exists and/or other personnel onsite possess the knowledge and skills. External/internal applicant generally available and can be trained in 1 to 2 years. 4. Very significant knowledge and skills that could be viewed as mission critical. Limited duplication or documentation exists. Back-up very limited. Requires 2-4 years of training and experience to replace. 5. Mission-critical knowledge and skills that have the potential for significant system reliability or operational impacts if lost. Critical knowledge undocumented. No backup support and/or no ready replacements available. Knowledge and/or skills maybe difficult to replace. Requires 3-5 years of training and experience to replace.
    • Determine Knowledge-Loss Impact
      • Using the knowledge-loss impact table leaders should assign a priority for development of actions to mitigate the loss
        • Figure 1. Knowledge-Loss Impact Table
      • An estimate of the effort and urgency necessary to effectively manage knowledge-loss impact: Priority Level A - Immediate action needed. Specific action plans with due dates will be developed to include: method of knowledge replacement, knowledge management assessment, specific training required, and on-the-job training/shadowing with incumbent. Priority Level B - Plans should be established to address method and timing of knowledge replacement, training, shadowing with current knowledge holder. Priority Level C - Look ahead on how the position will be managed. Consider college recruiting, training programs, and/or process improvements. Priority Level D - Recognize the functions of the position and determine needs if any.
    • Knowledge Transfer and Retention Methods
      • Acquisition Methods
        • Extensive Exit Interviews: Intentional meetings used to capture knowledge from employees when they give notice. Leader, exiting employee and employee assuming responsibilities meet as often as possible to discuss, take notes on the exiting employee’s knowledge of the job.
        • Incumbent Interviews: Interview conducted by knowledge elicitor with an employee to document knowledge of specific job or task.
        • Post Job Briefings: Immediate briefings conducted after a specific job, task, activity or evolution in order to capture lessons learned, skills, and knowledge while job is fresh in employees’ minds.
        • Self Capture: Employees document their knowledge of a specific job, task, activity or evolution in order to capture their knowledge and /or skills needed to complete the activity.
        • Videotaping Task Performance: Video recording of an employee(s) performing a job, task, activity or evolution which is best captured through a visual demonstration versus a written explanation or description.
      • Transfer Methods
        • Communities of Practice: Employees with a specific interest in or knowledge of a job, task, activity or evolution meet to share learnings or key tasks from employees who have more knowledge or some unique knowledge of the activity.
        • Training and Development Programs:Transfer of work- related skills, knowledge and information in a single class or a series of classes in order to become familiar and/or proficient in the training subject.
        • Simulations and Walk-Throughs: Transfer of work-related skills, knowledge and information in a simulated workplace setting or as a "dry run" of the actual job, task, activity or evolution.
        • Mentoring Program: An intentional relationship between two employees where one of the employees is the "learner" (mentee) and the other is the "teacher" (mentor). The mentor functions to provide one-on-one coaching and oversight such that the mentee gains the viewpoint of the mentor needed to perform or manage a job, task, activity or evolution. Achievement of specific goals and learning objectives may be part of the mentee’s "program". The mentor provides insights that he learned through experience such that the mentee’s success path is streamlined and efficient.
        • Mentoring (Informal): A less structured teaching relationship between "seasoned" and less experienced employees.
        • Cross Training: Training provided on how to perform a job, task, activity or evolution in another job function, department, discipline or organization such that trainees attain an understanding and awareness of the job function that they would not have received if not observed first hand.
        • Rotational Assignments: An intentional, planned job assignment or series of assignments that provide specific experience considered necessary in the development of an employee. These assignments are designed to provide broad-based exposure to key responsibilities in a number of organizational functions. Employees involved generally move into new positions with new duties, co-workers and supervisors.
        • Apprenticeship: Learning a trade by practical experience from skilled workers.
        • Job Shadowing: Observation of job, task, activity or evolution to gain exposure to and understanding of the job.
        • Hire Retirees as Consultants: "Re-hire" of previous employees to transfer their knowledge and skill to another employee or to document their knowledge and skill for future retrieval.
      • Retention Methods
        • Databases Mining / Use of Search Engines: Databases and intranet search engines used for retention and retrieval of job, task, activity or evolution knowledge and work instructions.
        • Electronic Media (such as audio/ video recordings or intranet website databases): Video and digital photographs used for retention / retrieval of step by step documentation of infrequently performed jobs, tasks activities or evolutions. Department websites used for retaining and retrieving lessons learned insights.
        • Codification (in the form of procedures): Department procedures / administrative guides used to capture and retain job, task, activity or evolution knowledge and work instructions.
        • Desk Guides: Written document used to provide detail of a job or task. Does not replace procedure but is used to augment as a "how-to-reference" with practical insights on job, task performance.
    • Key Considerations
      • When selecting a method, the following criteria should be considered. • Length of time knowledge will be relevant; • Types of knowledge involved (that is: undocumented, documented); • Timing of knowledge loss; • Costs of applying the method under consideration (a cost benefit analysis may be needed); • Motivation and capability of employee to share knowledge and successor’s motivation; and • Capability for acquiring knowledge.
      • Following are some key issues that may influence the willingness of employees to share their knowledge. • View it as an honor to be recognized as an expert. • Believe they have an obligation to share their knowledge with others because of the benefits received during their careers. • Believe it is the right thing to do. • View it as part of their job.
    • Troubleshooting
      • One thing to keep in mind when selecting a method is that some of the methods (such as mentoring, coaching) transfer the knowledge from the “head” of one employee to another. Although direct transfer of knowledge has many advantages, it also has certain drawbacks one being that the knowledge does not get captured. When selecting a transfer method, another method may also need to be used to ensure the knowledge is captured.
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