The effect of standardisation testing within primary schools ; The impact they have on children as individuals and the influence they have on quality teaching2 - Mind Map

The effect of standardisation testing within primary schools ; The impact they have on children as individuals and the influence they have on quality teaching2 Mind Map
 
 
 
 

The effect of standardisation testing within primary schools ; The impact they have on children as individuals and the influence they have on quality teaching2 - Mind Map

1 years ago by: aishahersi3321
 
 
  • The effect of standardisation testing within primary schools ; The impact they have on children as individuals and the influence they have on quality teaching
    • Teachers Workload
      • Teachers’ institutional tasks have increased because they are expected to take up work related to testing in addition to their regular teaching duties
        • Teachers now have performance-related pay; and schools that are identified as ‘failing’ face challenges or interventions such as a written warning from the government, an Ofsted inspection, removal of the headteacher or the school being closed and replaced by an academy
      • One study found that teachers lose between 60 to 110 hours of instructional time in a year because of testing and the institutional tasks that surround it.
      • Most teachers are expected to spend an increasing amount of time on practice tests or drill sessions to prepare students for tests.
    • Introduction
      • Testing is often cited as contributing to a narrowingof the curriculum and as resulting in inappropriate test preparation practices (Jerald,2006; Koretz, 2005).
        • The initial aim of standardised testing was to improve attainment by supplying information about attainment to parents (through published league tables) and enabling them to choose their children’s schools, an educational market was created, and it was assumed that schools would respond by raising standards.
          • The current English accountability structures were introduced following the Education Reform Act (DES1988), which led to the creation of Ofsted , national testing and published league tables
            • Children from low–socioeconomic status (SES) and racial-/ethnic-minority groups score lower on average on standardized academic tests relative to high-SES and White families, respectively(Bradbury,Corak, Waldfogel,& Washbrook,2015; Reardon, 2011).
              • Many factors contribute to the achievement gap, including class size, teacher characteristics, parent participation, and hunger and nutrition (Barton & Coley, 2009).
                • The stress disparity model
      • Standardized tests are administered, scored, and interpreted in a consistent way, so that the performances of large groups of students can be compared
        • Accountability
          • The structures that were introduced by the Education Reform Act also gave the government more power to control what was taught, and to hold schools to account directly;
      • Standardised testing is often used for high-stakes purposes such as determining which students will pass or graduate, which teachers are fired or given raises, and which schools are reorganise or given more funding
    • Negatives
      • Standardized tests limit student learning because they focus only on cognitive dimensions, ignoring many other qualities that are essential to student success
      • Soft skills such as curiosity, conscientiousness, perseverance, and sociability are often ignored. these skills are vital for children development
      • Standardized test can make student doubt their own abilities, causing children to develop anxiety resulting in them not being motivated to learn.
        • Studies show that elementary school students can begin to lose their sense of themselves as capable, able to do well in school and graduate
      • High stakes testing does not improve children’s overall knowledge and understanding because teaching is focused very closely on the demands of the test (e.g. Amrein and Berliner 2002; Koretz 2008)
        • High stakes testing has a wide range of negative effects on teachers and pupils. For example, it results in less creative teaching; a narrowing of the curriculum; a focus on borderline students at the expense of others; pupil anxiety and stress; and temptation to both pupils and teachers to ‘game the system’ (e.g. Clarke et al. 2003; Pedulla et al 2003; Jones and Egley 2004; Rothstein et al 2008; Ravitch 2010).
    • Case Studies
      • Pisa
        • Borgonovi and Biecek 2016, Zamarro et al. 2016 , their study looks at the relationship between attitudes and efforts of standardised testing
          • Learning in stressful situations may lead to more rigid, habit-based memory formation rather than more flexible memories that connect concepts together (Schwabe & Wolf, 2010; Schwabe, Wolf, & Oitzl, 2010).
    • Stress
    • Ideology
    • Values and education
    • Practice and Policies
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