Vocabulary in Second Language Acquisition - Mind Map

Vocabulary in Second Language Acquisition Mind Map
 
 
 
 

Vocabulary in Second Language Acquisition - Mind Map

22 days ago by: Christine Polichette
 
 
Christine Lasher's Week 5 Assignment
  • Vocabulary in Second Language Acquisition
    • Students face vocabulary learning tasks in K-12 schooling.
      • There are four types of vocabulary.
        • words we understand when we hear them
        • words we can read
        • words we use in speech
          • Idea
        • words we use in writing
          • Idea
      • Word families are used to know the size of someone's vocabulary.
      • There are different levels of word knowledge.
        • Understanding the levels of word knowledge is different when applied to those learning English as a second language.
          • Idea
      • There is research on how many words are in a student's reading vocabulary.
        • Approximate average reading vocabulary size of native English speakers
          • 3rd Graders:10,000 words
          • 12th Graders: 40,000 words
        • This research shows the huge amount of word learning English learners are faced with.
          • There are too many words to teach them all directly.
            • High frequency words can be taught directly so learners can know these words as soon as possible in order to start participating in the language.
          • Growth rates of English learners are similar to (and may surpass) growth rates of native English speakers.
            • However, the gap takes time to fill since they started years behind.
              • Idea
    • Second language vocabulary acquisition involves the roles of the individual, home, family, and instructional context.
      • First language acquisition plays a role in English vocabulary learning.
        • Proficiency in native language can help students in second language acquisition
        • Language systems of people who speak multiple languages are highly connected.
        • Using cognates from the native language to learn English can be helpful.
      • Socioeconomic status can play a role in English learning.
        • Overall, children of lower SES tend to perform less well than children of higher SES.
          • Many children learning English come from lower SES households and have less developed oral language.
          • These SES factors can be mitigated with shared book reading.
      • Family interactions play a role in English learning.
        • Families who prefer to use English at home tend to have larger English vocabularies, while families who prefer to use Spanish at home tend to have larger Spanish vocabularies.
          • However, the nature of interactions at home and at school has influence as well.
      • Vocabulary learning instruction in the classroom plays a role in English learning.
        • Vocabulary instruction is much more common in language arts classrooms than any other classrooms.
        • Vocabulary instruction varies from classroom to classroom, but overall seems to be lacking according to research.
    • There is research on effective vocabulary instruction.
      • Language is mainly acquired through listening, talking, and reading. Therefore, teachers need to immerse students in language-rich environments.
        • Shared book reading can be an effective strategy.
          • The adult reads to the child and occasionally stops to discuss words and other aspects of what was read.
          • Research shows that this method is effective for older learners, not just young children.
          • This strategy improves comprehension and oral proficiency.
        • Independent reading can be an effective strategy.
          • Independent reading exposes the learner to extensive vocabulary that might not be available in spoken language alone.
          • This incidental learning strategy may only give learners partial vocabulary mastery rather than full vocabulary mastery.
            • Structured support during independent reading can support mastery.
            • Learners would need to be exposed to a word 8-10 times to have a reasonable chance of acquiring receptive knowledge.
          • When giving students texts to read on their own, it's important that they can read it with accuracy, fluency, and good comprehension.
        • Educational television shows can be a source of language learning.
          • English learners who had some proficiency in English had language benefits from watching television.
          • Television can provide a rich language experience for children to learn from.
            • Other types of digital media can have similar results.
      • Individual word instruction can be an effective method for teaching English when used together with other methods.
        • This strategy is particularly helpful when it uses information related to the definition of words as well as contextual information.
          • Activities can be used to develop context for the targeted vocabulary to help acquisition.
            • Lesson objective
            • Picture cards
            • Discussion during daily shared reading
            • Using glossaries and context maps
        • Activating prior knowledge and comparing/contrasting word meanings is helpful when using this strategy.
          • Semantic mapping encourages comprehension.
        • There are many direct language instruction strategies that include information on context and definition.
          • Using authentic children's literature or expository texts
          • Using student-friendly definitions of target words
          • Questioning and prompting to encourage critical thinking of word meanings
          • Examples of contexts where words can be used
          • Acting out word meanings
          • Visual aids
          • Encouragement to pronounce, spell, and write about words
          • Comparing and contrasting words
          • Repetition and reinforcement
          • Listening for word meanings as text is read aloud
      • There are three word-learning strategies that are important for English learners to know since they have many words to learn.
        • Context Clues
          • Most vocabulary is learned from context, and research shows that the process of learning through context can be taught.
          • There are five types of instruction of context clues.
            • Instruction centering on one or more context-type clues
            • Instruction in which students complete fill-in-the-blank texts
            • Instruction focused on developing strategies to infer word meaning
            • Instruction directed at helping develop schema to create a definition
            • Instruction involving practice without specific guidelines to infer meaning
          • Teachers can read books, discuss sections of what was read, and use think-aloud modeling to show how context can be used to infer meaning.
          • There may be problems with inferring meaning from context.
            • It is important for students to verify the inferences that they make from context.
            • If a text is too difficult for a student to understand the context, it is unlikely that they will be able to infer any word meaning.
        • Word Parts
          • There are specific word elements that can be taught.
            • Inflections
              • Inflections modify a base word by changing grammatical features.
              • Inflections do not change the part of speech or basic meaning.
            • Derivational suffixes
              • Derivational suffixes modify a base word by changing grammatical features.
              • Derivational suffixes modify root words to change the part of speech.
            • Prefixes
              • Prefixes are attached to the beginnings of words and change the word's meaning.
            • Latin and Greek roots
              • Latin and Greek roots are non-English words that are used as parts of English words.
          • Results from studies about teaching word parts have generally been good.
            • One strategy involves teaching the meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes.
            • One strategy involves using cards containing prefixes, roots, and suffixes to make words.
            • It is helpful to teach morphology in relation to cognate instruction.
        • Using the Dictionary
          • Dictionary definitions are decontextualized, so using the dictionary is not the most effective instructional strategy.
            • This is true for students using the dictionary in their native language as well as second language learners.
          • Newer dictionaries may have user-friendly second language definitions and examples of target words in sentences to clarify meaning.
      • Using cognates has been shown to be an important strategy for English learners whose first language has English cognates.
        • Many English words that are cognates with Spanish are high-frequency Spanish words, but low frequency English words.
        • While cognate knowledge is usually helpful, the wrong meaning may be inferred.
          • Some words have false cognates.
          • Some words share meanings, but not the meaning required in the given context.
      • Word consciousness is a metacognitive strategy that involves interest in and awareness of words.
        • Word awareness fosters and appreciation of the power of words and understanding why words are used at certain times.
        • There is little research on word consciousness since it is a new concept.
        • Word consciousness is related to motivation to learn a language, which is related to language acquisition.
        • The Gift of Words project focused on words in reading, writing, and discussion and results showed that is was effective in supporting students' awareness of and interest in words.
    • Grammar was the major focus of second-language instruction, but now the importance of vocabulary is known.
      • Many language learners are proficient in their first language, which can be used to support second language acquisition.
        • There are strategies that use the first language to instruct the second language.
          • Previewing and reviewing readings in the student's first language
          • Teaching vocabulary in the student's first language before teaching it in the second
          • Having instructional conversations that allow some interpretation in the first language
          • Using bilingual glossaries
          • Providing instruction in using cognates
      • It is critical for English learners to develop basic oral and reading vocabulary.
        • This will help them learn from context.
      • Repetition and reinforcement of vocabulary is important for strengthening learning.
        • This is especially important for English learners since they may have less exposure to English outside of school compared to native English speakers.
        • Words should be recycled in multiple learning activities to ensure there is guided and varied repetition.
      • Teachers can scaffold vocabulary instruction to extend academic skills.
        • Guides can be used to explicitly address concepts in text that might confuse second language learners.
          • Idea
        • Students can act out the meanings of words and use visual aids.
        • Student-teacher interaction when reading can make texts more comprehensible.
      • Vocabulary instruction should be differentiated due to the many individual factors involved in learning a second language.
        • Instruction can be differentiated in various ways.
          • Build on proficiency and literacy in the first language
          • Consider levels of English proficiency as well as literacy in the first language
          • Accommodate the needs of older learners who are new to the U.S.
            • Idea
          • Take into account differences in ability and learning rates
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