Biology, Evolution, and Variation - WBS

Biology, Evolution, and Variation WBS
 
 
 
 

Biology, Evolution, and Variation - WBS

25 days ago by: Nico Sartori
 
 
  • Biology, Evolution, and Variation
    • Anthropology
      • The study of humankind, past and present, that draws and builds upon knowledge from the social sciences and biological sciences, as well as the humanities and the natural sciences.
      • Key Concepts
        • The 4 Branches of Anthropology
          • 1. Cultural Anthropology
          • 2. Archaeology
            • Idea
          • 3. Linguistic Anthropology
          • 4. Physical Anthropology
        • Culture and Biology
          • Culture is "Learned and shared patterns of behavior and belief".
          • Human variation influenced by inherited genes and environmental circumstances
        • What Anthropologists Do
          • Human Biology: genetics, growth and development, adaptations
          • Primatology: study of non-human primates
          • Paleoanthropology: study of fossil record
          • Skeletal Biology and Osteology
          • Bioarchaeology: features of skeletons
            • Idea
          • Forensic Anthropology
            • Idea
      • Fun Fact
        • First simple tools made from rocks- 2.6 million years ago in East Africa.
    • History of Evolutionary Thought
      • James Hutton
        • Found unconformities, boundaries b/w rock where surface is not static (Rock Cycle)
      • Charles Lyell
        • Uniformitarianism- Earth changed by natural processes
      • Robert Hooke
        • Fossils once living things!
      • John Ray
        • Divine organization of species (later taxonomy)
      • Carolus Linnaeus
        • Classification system
      • Chevalier de Lamark
        • Acquired Inheritance
      • Charle's Darwin
        • Natural selection- survival of the fittest- important for adapting to environments
      • Fun Fact
        • Forces of evolution occurs during forces of evolution and not from natural disasters
    • Heredity and Biological Evolution
      • Mendelian Genetics
        • 1. Only 1 homologous chromosome is inherited from each parent
        • 2. Variation in genes and protein responsible for phenotypic differences
        • 3. Genes contain DNA which can determine which traits are dominant or recessive
      • Evolutionary Forces
        • 1. Mutations
          • Genetic variation and can improve chance of survival passing it on to offspring
        • 2. Natural Selection
          • Survival of the fittest that acts on the individual
        • 3. Gene Flow
          • transfer of genes from one population to another.
        • 4. Genetic Drift
          • variation of genotypes (Bottleneck effect)
        • 5. Sexual Selection
          • Male competition and female choice by best fit
      • Fun Fact
        • Lacking CCR5-32 base-pair makes individuals resistant to HIV-1.
    • Evolution in Humans
      • Evolution shapes human diversity.
      • Human variation= evolution +environment + culture
        • Adaptation allows for increase in fitness and have a benefit.
        • Maintains homeostasis
      • 4 Levels of Adaptation
        • 1. Genetic
        • 2. Developmental
          • Capacity to change is inherited.
        • 3. Acclimatrization
          • Individual
        • 4. Cultural
          • material culture to cope with environment
      • Fun Fact
        • Individuals with some sickle cells can develop immunity to malaria.
    • Human Variation and Race
      • Social Construction of Race
        • Phenotype and fluidity
        • Hypodescent: children of a union b/w members of different groups are automatically placed in the minority group.
      • Concept of Race
        • Race: subspecies that share a common ancestor; geographically isolated from other members
        • Light/Dark skin coloration is geographically correlated.
        • More pigmented skin is an adaptation to high levels of solar radiation.
        • Not biologically valid-no discrete groups, socially-constructed.
      • Fun Fact
        • About 85% of human genetic variation is within groups; only 15% is between.
    • Race and Racism
      • Race is not an accurate or productive way to describe human biological variation.
      • Human variation (race) has huge implications socially, biomedically, and forensically.
      • Ethnic Conflict
        • Genocide
        • Ethnocide: destruction of culture
        • Refugees
          • people who have been forced or who have chosen to flee a country to escape persecution of war.
      • Fun Fact
        • Humans could be divided into races based on objective "scientific" measurements (Anthropometry).
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